The Brain

.. FUTURE Today many experiments are being conducted that may be break through’s for the future. For instance “brain grafting” is one procedure that may be used in the future. Brain grafting is to transplant a very thin layer of brain skin from one person to another. This would result in control of parkinson’s disease and other seizure related diseases.

Another radical idea that has already been successfully been tried on rhesus monkey’s is, brain transplants. The ethics and legal problems for such a transplant would probably never let this operation be performed on humans. This is because the person would not be the same, would not have the same memories or the same abilities that the host body had had. The last idea of the future that we will list is called “artificial hearing and seeing”. Artificial seeing is achieved by planting sixty-four small electrodes in front of the visual cortex of the brain.

The electrodes are connected to a small camera that is some where on the person’s ear. A computer is attached to the camera. The computer sends the images from the camera directly to the implanted electrodes. They flash as the picture from the camera, thus enabling the person to somewhat see. Artificial hearing is much more complicated then artificial seeing.

First a electrodes must be planted in the brain. Then through a microphone a computer produces electrical pulses that are then sent to the electrodes in the brain. But as of yet these procedures are not practical first because of the size of the computer, it cannot be taken out of the laboratory second the cost of the package and third the risks involved. CONCLUSION After all of the work and research that we have done it is very evident to us that the brain is one of the most wondrous organs that humans could have. It guides us through almost every second of our life.

Even after exploring vast and distant sky’s to the microorganisms that exist today, the brain has never ceased to amaze us and probably never will. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. The Brain and Nervous System by Lambert, Mark copyright Macmillan Education, 1988 2. The Brain and Nervous System by Parker, Steve copyright Franklin Watts, 1990 3. Encyclopedia Britannica by Britannica, Encyclopedia Inc. copyright Encyclopedia Britannica Inc., 1986 4. The Incredible Machine by Geographic, National Society copyright Geographic, National Society, 1992 GLOSSARY artificial hearing: When a person is able to hear but not naturally. artificial seeing: When a person is able to see but not naturally. blood brain barrier: A set of special capillaries that are only found in brain.

There purpose is to filter the blood so only oxygen, glucose and water are able to enter the brain. Unfortuantly they don’t prevent narcotics from entering the brain. brain: An organ that is pinkish-white in appearance and is located in the skull. This organ controls almost everything that the body does. brain grafting: Brain grafting is the process of taking a thin layer of brain skin from the donor and moving to new host. brainstem: This is what the brain had used to be early evolution, but now it only controls our basic functions such as breathing and heart rate. capillaries: Tiny blood vessels.

cells: What all living thing are built from. central nervous system: This the brain and spinal cord put together. Also see: brain, spinal cord. cerebellum: This part of the brain makes sure that all of your body works together. It also keeps your balance.

cerebral cortex: This is one of the most important parts of the brain. It also is produces our thoughts, stores our memories, and plans. cerebrospinal fluid: This what the brain floats in. cerebrum: The cerebrum is split in to two different sides. Left and right.

It is located at the front of the head. choroid plexuses: These special blood vessels are what produce the cerebrospinal fluid. cortex: This is the outer layer of the cerebrum. cranium: This is the part of the skull that holds the brain. diseases: Illnesses that can be terminal.

electrodes: They are made out metal and emit electricity, usually very little. glucose: This is a combination of sugar and water. grey matter: Mainly made from the cell bodies of neurons. hemisphere: These are the two different part of the cerebrum. Almost all of the brain’s work is done there.

hormones: Chemicals that can change the chemical make up of your physical body. hypothalmus: This part of the brain is located above the brainstem. It controls basic drives such as hunger and sex. medulla: The medulla is almost right behind the brainstem. It helps you to digest your food.

mind: Not just the brain but the actual consciousness that we have. nerves: Pathways that the brain uses to send messages to and from different parts of the body. nervous system: The whole system of nerves that attach to the spinal cord. organs: Important part of the body. The brain, heart and lungs are examples of organs. Parkinson’s Disease: This disease causes the victim to have seizures. pituitary: The pituitary produces hormones. pons: A band of nerve fibre that connect the back the brain to the middle.

skull: The skull is made up of twenty-eight bones. It is located above the spinal cord. It also contains the brain. spinal cord: This cord goes down your back. Almost all nerves in the body are connected to the spinal cord.

thalamus: The thalamus a sort of relay room. It gets messages from the lower brain area and sends them to the higher brain. transplant: To transplant is to take something from one person and put it into another person. white matter: White matter is tissue made from nerve fibres. INDEX NOTE: For the Index, the introduction is the 1st page. artificial seeing 6 artificial hearing 7 balance 3 blood brain barrier 2 blood 2,3 .harmful chemicals 2 blood pressure 3 blood vessels 2 brain 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 .hemispheres 4 .transplants 6 .grafting 6 .protecting 2 .section 2 .front 2,3 .middle 2,3 .back 2,3 brainstem 3,4 breathing 3 capillaries 2 cells 1 central nervous system 1 cerebellum 3,5 cerebral cortex 5 cerebrospinal fluid 2 cerebrum 2,3 choroid plexus 2 cortex 2,3,6 cranium 2 digesting food 3 electrodes 6 glucose 2 grey matter 2 heart 3 hormones 4 hunger 4 hypothalamus 4 medulla 3 memory 2 mind 1 nerves 1,3 nervous system 1 neurons 2 organs 1 oxygen 2 parkinson’s disease 6 pituitary 4 pons 3 sex 4 skull 2,3 spinal cord 1,3 thalamus 4 water 2 white matter 3.